Dart Sailability Wrinkles - 'Reef an Access Dinghy'

  • by Dart Sailability
  • 17 Nov, 2016

Useful information for all sailors..........

The latest 'wrinkle' explains how to 'Reef an Access Dinghy', very useful information for all sailors, so....
 
We are creating a monthly article outlining different aspects of seamanship with particular reference to how we work at Dart Sailability. The plan is for past articles to be saved here so that they build up into a useful reference handbook. If you have any particular topic you would like covered – or would like to write yourself – please contact Nick .  The latest 'wrinkle' explains how to 'Reef an Access Dinghy', very useful information for all sailors, so....
 
See below for the previous 'wrinkles'
 
If you have any particular topic you would like covered – or would like to write yourself – please contact Nick

Wrinkles - past and present

We are creating a monthly article outlining different aspects of seamanship with particular reference to how we work at Dart Sailability. The plan is for past articles to be saved here so that they build up into a useful reference handbook. If you have any particular topic you would like covered – or would like to write yourself – please contact Nick .

Wrinkles so far:

8. Access Reefing

7. Mooring - to a Pontoon

6. Mooring - Cleating ropes

5. International Regulations to Prevent Collisions at Sea (IRPCS, or ColRegs) - Sail

4. Towing Access Dinghies

3. Knots - Round Turn and Two Half-Hitches

2. Marking a Waterline

1. International Regulations to Prevent Collisions at Sea (IRPCS, or ColRegs) - General


8. Access Reefing

When wind strengths get up, or if a new sailor needs a more gentle experience when learning, then this is the time to reef. A boat sails more efficiently when upright or nearly so and there is no advantage to be gained in maintaining full sail if the boat is heeling at 45 degrees or you are constantly having to spill wind. If in doubt, reef before you start - it is much easier to take out an unnecessary reef on the water than it is to reef when the wind gets too strong.

Reefing an Access is easy as both sails can be rolled round the masts by pulling the furling/reefing lines. If the Access is set up properly, both sails will be coming back from the starboard(right) side of the mast. To reef, pull on the port(left) reefing lines (the inner one for the main and outer one for the jib). When reefing the main, the outhaul first has to be slackened off, as well as the main sheet, as the boom needs to be allowed to rise. When the sail has been reduced sufficiently, it should be 'anchored' by hitching the reefing lines into the little jam cleats on the rear port side of the central console. This will prevent the sail unfurling again when sailing. (This does not work if the sails have been furled on the wrong side of the mast). Once the main is reefed, the outhaul will need to be tightened again. If reefing the main, take an equivalent amount off the jib as well to maintain the balance of the boat.


7. Mooring - to a Pontoon

The standard way to tie up involves three pairs of ropes - see diagram below:-
Bow Line and Stern Line.  These lead forwards and backwards from the bow & stern to the pontoon and prevent the boat drifting back and forth with the tide.  For our small boats on our sheltered pontoon, this is normally all we use, though it does allow the boat to 'saw' against the pontoon and the Hawk could benefit from springs (see below) to stop this happening when on the pontoon.  Boats should be well-fendered against the pontoon.
 
Bow and Stern Springs.  These lead back from the bows and forward from the stern to the pontoon, usually crossing over each other.  They prevent the boat 'sawing' against the pontoon.
 
Breast ropes run straight from the bows and from the stern to the pontoon to hold the boat against it.
 
The ropes should not be bar tight, but have a little slack in them.  As the pontoon rises and falls with the tide, this does not make a problem, but against a fixed quay, breast ropes would not be used and bow and stern lines and springs would need to be at least three times longer than the tidal range or adjusted frequently to prevent the boat being left hanging when the tide falls (or being pulled under when it rises) either of which could quite spoil your day - and your boat.
 
Note that where two or more boats are 'rafted' side by side on the pontoon, bow and stern lines should be run from each boat to the pontoon.  If the outer boat(s) are just roped to each other, it can put a lot of strain on the inner boat (and make it more difficult to take out the inner boat).  We make an exception to this rule with our little Access dinghies, which we attach to the safety boat and to each other with simple breast ropes.

 


6. Mooring - Cleating Ropes

When cleating off a mooring line, first take a complete turn round the cleat, then two or three complete figures-of-eight before finishing off with a further one or two turns. ( See Diagram below )

1.     Take the working end and make a complete turn round the cleat (Fig A)        

2. Take the rope diagonally across the top of the cleat and behind the upper horn, then back to complete a figure-of-eight (Fig B)
    
Add a further couple of figure-of-eight turns.

3.Complete with another full turn around the base of the cleat (Fig C)

A final tuck is unnecessary, as are any extra turns.

 It is often necessary to attach two or more ropes to the same cleat. When doing this, any subsequent ropes should not be cleated over the top of the first one, but should be tied off with a round turn and two half hitches round one or other of the 'legs' of the cleat. In this way, three ropes can be fixed to one cleat, and each can be untied without disturbing any of the others. ( See Diagram below )
Once a rope has been cleated, any extra length outstanding should be coiled neatly beside the cleat so that it does not obstruct the pontoon.

5. International Regulations to Prevent Collisions at Sea (IRPCS, or ColRegs) - Part 2 -Sail

No-one should take control of a boat without being fully aware of these 'Rules of the Road'.  It is your responsibility to prevent a collision and these rules have evolved over the years as being the safest approach.  When two boats approach each other on a possible collision course, one boat becomes the 'stand-on' boat and the other needs to take appropriate evasive action.  The trick is to be able to identify which boat you are and then what action to take.  Note that neither boat has 'right of way'; even if you are the 'stand-on' boat, you still have a duty to avoid a collision.
 
To break the rules into bite-sized pieces, this article only deals with them as they apply to two boats under sail.  An earlier article ( Wrinkle 1 ) covered power boats. (a sailing boat under engine, becomes a power boat).  
 
A. If two boats are approaching on different tacks, the boat on the starboard tack (boom to
port) is the 'stand-on' boat.  The boat on the port tack must alter course to avoid a collision.  This may be by tacking, or altering course to pass astern of the other boat:-

B. If two boats are on the same tack, then the windward boat keeps clear (normally passing behind the other boat):-
If boats are overtaking, then it is the duty of the overtaking boat to keep clear.
 
D. Both sailing and power vessels should keep clear of a vessel not under command, a vessel that is "restricted in its ability to manoeuvre" (e.g. The Higher Ferry), as well as a boat engaged in fishing and a vessel constrained by its draught.
 
In each case, the 'stand-on' boat should refrain from making any alterations of course that could frustrate the efforts of the other boat to keep clear.
 
Please Note: This is a simplified summary of the regulations, and the very minimum that you should know before being in control of a boat under sail.  The complete regulations can be found at:   www.collisionregs.com/Collregs.html

4. Towing Access Dinghies

For ease of getting alongside the pontoon and to enable a volunteer to help rig and unrig on the water, we tow the Access alongside the Safety Boat (rather than behind it).
 
The first rule for such towing is that the stern of the towing boat (safety boat) must be behind the stern of the towed boat (Access), which makes maneuvering much easier (see the lower ferry).
 
Secondly, the centreline of the Access should be parallel to that of the safety boat.  If the Access is at an angle, its keel becomes an angled blade and water pressure causes the boat to heel once you start moving.
 
As the dredged channel is very narrow past ‘our’ pontoon, it is important to have the dinghy on the side nearest the pontoon (i.e. to starboard on the way out and to port on the return) and to drive slowly and, below half-tide, very close to the boats moored to the pontoon.  For the same reason, keep close to the end of the pontoon when turning towards the river.
 
When picking up an Access on the river, ask the sailor to stop by heading into the wind and then drive up alongside (usually bringing the Access to your port - left - side), get hold of the bowline (which should be attached to the mast) and make it fast - but not too tightly - to the safety boat.  Then tie on the stern line fairly tightly before tightening up the bowline if necessary until the boats are parallel.  You should use a round turn and two half-hitches for these ropes.  Once the boat is secure, then first the foresail, then the main can be furled.  Until this is done, the driver should keep both boats heading into the wind.
 
Once towing, ask the sailor to centre his/her tiller so that it does not interfere with your steering.  (An alternative would be to remove the rudder, but see below).  Be aware of the feelings of the sailor who is sitting much closer to the water, and do not go uncomfortably fast.  Go very slowly when driving past the pontoons.
 
Having a boat alongside does affect your steering: you will be able to turn much more sharply to the side with the boat on, and turning away from the boat will be much more gradual, so make sure you have room, go slowly, give the boat time to turn and be ready to use reverse if necessary.  You can ask the Access sailor to help by steering in the same direction.
 
When the water is low, keep as close as you can to the boats moored to the pontoon.  If there is not enough water when returning to the pontoon, then you will need to raise the keel.  If this is necessary, do not forget to pull out the rudder(s) as well - they break easily if caught in the mud.

 3. Knots - Round Turn and Two Half-Hitches

This is the knot you will probably use more than any other. It is easy to tie and fixes a rope to a ring or bar, or post. It is also easy to untie, even under strain. It is used to tie mooring warps etc.


 1.         Pass the rope below the bar or ring, up over the top and repeat to make two complete turns.

2.         Take the working end over the standing part, round beneath and back up, tucking it under itself. This completes the first half-hitch.

3.         Repeat stage 2 to make a second half-hitch. Pull both ends to tighten.

Do not be tempted to leave out one of the round turns at the beginning. Having the two initial turns makes the knot stronger and greatly reduces wear on the rope against the bar or ring.

2. Marking a Waterline

We have a new Access dinghy which needed a waterline marking. There are basically two stages: getting the boat level and then marking out the waterline.

You will need:-

A flat level and smooth surface

Assorted bits of wood for chocks and a gauge

A felt-tipped pen for marking out

Masking tape

  1. Determine where the waterline comes at the bow and the stern by observing the boat in the water (containing all normal equipment but   with nobody aboard), or by seeing where the weed grows to if the boat has been removed from the water.
  2. Take out mast, centre plate, rudder and all lose equipment and place the boat on a smooth, level surface.
  3. Draw a waterline reference mark at the bow and stern. This is a short, horizontal mark crossing the centreline of the boat at the waterline (see 1 above). On an Access dinghy, the stern mark is at the bottom edge of the transom (the flat stern of the boat) and the bow mark is just where the straight bow begins to turn in towards the keel. (See diagram A)
  4. Chock up the stern or bows until the bow mark and the stern mark are exactly the same vertical distance from the ground. (‘a’ in diagram A)
Diagram A
5.     Without disturbing the stern/bow chock, put chocks under either side until the boat is level. The vertical distance from the ground to the mid-point of the gunwale on each side should be the same. (‘b’ in diagram B)
Diagram B
6. Make a gauge by finding or cutting a bit of wood to the vertical distance from the ground to the reference marks. Use this and a felt-tip pen to make a series of short marks every few inches working round the hull, keeping the wooden gauge vertical.

7. Turn the hull upside-down and make a fair curve between the marks with masking tape. On the upside-down boat, the top edge of the tape should be level with the marks.

8. If the hull has not been painted previously, a coat of hull primer should be painted on before anti-foul.

9. Then paint with anti-foul. There should be two coats, at least round the waterline and along the keel.


1. International Regulations to Prevent Collisions at Sea (IRPCS, or ColRegs) - General

No-one should take control of a boat without being fully aware of these 'Rules of the Road'. It is your responsibility to prevent a collision and these rules have evolved over the years as being the safest approach. When two boats approach each other on a possible collision course, one boat becomes the 'stand-on' boat and the other needs to take appropriate evasive action. The trick is to be able to identify which boat you are and then what action to take. Note that neither boat has 'right of way'; even if you are the 'stand-on' boat, you still have a duty to avoid a collision.

A later article will summarise the rules as they apply to two boats under sail. This one covers how they apply when at least one vessel is a power vessel.

A.         "Keep. To the Right". When motoring up or down the river, the basic rule is to keep to starboard, i.e. keep to the Kingswear side when going up-river and to the Dartmouth side when going downstream. If you are on a collision course with an oncoming boat, you should turn to starboard to pass it on your port (left) side. Note that, on the river, there is a speed limit of six knots.

B.         If a boat is crossing or converging on your course from the starboard (right-hand) side, you are the 'give-way' boat and should reduce your speed or alter course accordingly. Conversely, if the other boat is on your port side, then you should continue, as the 'stand-on' boat. (If the give-way boat fails to take evasive action in time, it remains your duty to avoid a collision - stop or turn to starboard. Do not turn to port as this would bring about a collision if the other boat belatedly turned to his starboard).
C.       A power boat gives way to a boat under sail. (But if sailing, use common sense and do not try to push it. A large powered vessel may be restricted to a deep water channel and be unable to take evasive action, and would, inevitably, take time and distance to slow down or turn away. The Kingswear Castle paddle steamer, in particular, has limited manoeuvrability. Even when sailing, we try not to impede the river boats and to build a reputation for good and professional seamanship). N.B. A sailing boat using its engine becomes a power boat.

D.       Both sailing and power vessels should keep clear of a vessel not under command, a vessel that is "restricted in its ability to manoeuvre" (e.g. The Higher Ferry), as well as a boat engaged in fishing and a vessel constrained by its draught.

E.         If you are the "give way" boat, then it is important that you take action earlyand in a way that makes your intentions obvious to the other boat. In other words, a definite and obvious alteration of course in plenty of time rather than a gradual easing of the helm to 'just slip past their stern'. The other skipper needs to know that you have seen his or her boat, made a realistic assessment of the situation and are taking the appropriate action.

Please Note : This is a simplified summary of the regulations, and the very minimum that you should know before being in control of a boat. The complete regulations can be found at:   www.collisionregs.com/Collregs.html       

Dart Sailability News Blog

by Dart Sailability 30 Nov, 2017
There will be no maintenance day on Tue 19 December as it's both the run up to Christmas and hopefully both of the boats we have out of the water will be complete and awaiting Premier lifting them back into the water and getting the next two out for us.  We may be very restricted in our ability to work on boats in February due to closure of the road bridge into Noss, as such it would be great if we could have really strong work parties throughout January.  The first maintenance session of 2018 will be Tuesday 9 January.  Have a great Christmas and look forward to seeing you in the New Year.
by Dart Sailability 30 Nov, 2017
It’s time to dig out those Christmas jumpers and silly hats again. Dart Sailability’s annual get together for Christmas lunch will be at Churston Golf Club on Tuesday 12 December at 12.00 noon for 12.30. Hope you will be able to come and join in the fun.
 
Our hosts at the Golf Club need numbers and menu choices in advance. Their menu is attached. If you can come please could you let me know and send me your food choices. You can email me on welfaresec@dartsailability.org . I need to get details to the restaurant by 5 December at the latest , so please could you let me know by then.
 
Prizes for the raffle would be gratefully accepted.
 
Looking forward to seeing you there.
 
Dolly Marsden
Welfare and Volunteers Secretary
Dart Sailability Group
 
by Dart Sailability 21 Nov, 2017
They raised £1,111.88 from our 6-month stint as preferred charity with the Dartmouth CoOp.
by Dart Sailability 30 Oct, 2017

What it takes to become a Keelboat Instructor!

Did you think it was just the ability to sail?

Five of us and Ed from Noss Marine Academy have been finding out.

We're refilling our pool of instructors to make sure Dart Sailability is always ready to teach members, new and established, the nuances of sailing. We need Keelboat instructors because we use the Sonar racing 7 metre keelboat, and the Hansa 303 boats that look very like tiny dinghies, but are miniature keelboats. We also have the Hawk 20, a boat that has a heavy metal centreplate and behaves far more like a keelboat than a dinghy.

Bob, our Chief Sailing Instructor for the past several years, has asked Anna, Ian H, Julie, Keith C and Tim to put themselves into the field of fire, and we've been joined by Ed to make us a round half dozen. Secretly we're trying to recruit Ed as a volunteer, too, but its a secret, Don't tell him!

Each of us has a different set of sailing experiences, a different background and a different level of boat competence. We range from a couple who tried out for their home nation's respective olympic sailing teams far more years ago that either cares to recall (neither were selected!), experienced offshore racers, club racers, hairy, scary dinghy sailors (the dinghies, not the sailors... Hmmm, actually I'm not so sure about that with a certain moustache....). We have a lapsed senior dinghy instructor, an existing and experienced dinghy instructor, a lapsed dinghy instructor, a fireball sailor, perhaps two, a cruising yachtsman who's never been on a sailing dinghy in anger, at least one powerboat instructor, people who've helmed and crewed on trapeze balanced dinghies, someone who's capsized an International 10 Square Metre Canoe a lot in the middle of Lake Windermere, a Finn sailor, a Flying Dutchman sailor, a Tornado sailor, so quite a skills portfolio. If you count carefully you will see more than six. Yes, some have done more than one thing!

There are two hurdles to leap before being allowed to take the course. Hurdle one is the RYA's safeguarding course. It's online, and common sense, but it's also multiple choice, and you only get two goes. Luckily Dart Sailability gives us a good concept already on safeguarding, so it's just a case of extending it to include those under 18 as a very special case. It's as much about protecting ourselves and Dart Sailability as it is about safeguarding young people and vulnerable adults. The RYA's Disability Awareness course we all take covers some of the same ground, but in a different manner.

Hurdle two is the pre-assessment. This is a day with a very grown up RYA person who decides whether the candidate is actually as competent as the centre putting them forward thinks they are. All six of us had to prove, or not, our competence at the core tasks we will be trained to teach. Not passing that gives rise to a discussion about whether the candidate should go forward to the course proper.

For this it's essential to be able to demonstrate manoeuvres simple and complex.

Simple is the correct RYA method of tacking, gybing, understanding the five essentials:

• Sail Set – do we have it right for the wind direction?

• Trim – fore and aft, are we too bow or too stern heavy? Why does it matter?

• Balance – is the boat being sailed as flat as possible for the conditions? Do we use it to control steering?

• Centreboard – we don't have one except on the Hawk, so can we explain the theory?

• Course Made Good – do we sail the best and shortest distance from where we are to where

we want to be?

Complex are manoeuvres to come back alongside, to pick up a mooring, to know how to slow the boat down, and to pick up a crew member (we use a weighted buoy, not a real crew member) who has fallen overboard.

So we need to know how to sail almost instinctively before we're taught how to pass those skills on to novices.

And that has given even the most experienced of us pause for thought! So we've been practicing on our Sonars to do our best to refine our skills and those of our colleagues so we can pass the pre-assessment. Well, all except Keith C, that is. He had a prior engagement trying to swim round the island of Crete. And not on Monday 16th October, when we were hit by the remains of Hurricane Ophelia. We could have sailed in the wind, heavily reefed, and it would have been great experience, but pointless in the global scheme of things. Besides, it was too close to the course itself to risk gear failures.

Tim was watching the developing weather over the weekend and kept the gang informed with the probability of cancelling top of his mind. He even went up river to check the moorings of all the Dart Sailability boats, Sonars, Farries Flyer, and all the vessels moored on the Noss Marina pontoons for the winter during the Sunday morning. He waited until the late afternoon and checked weather sources:

by Dart Sailability 23 Oct, 2017

“Hello Buoys!”

Tim and Bob and Keith C have been puzzling about mooring the two Sonars alongside each other, especially in the hard blows of this and probably next winter, and keeping them safe and well fendered.

With a couple of caveats, Tim's probably solved it, with a little help from Dart Harbour and a lot from Compass Marine. Here he is carryig the buoys in the same way he carried them to his car from Compass on Friday 20th October 2017, feeling very much like a cross between a weightlifter and a Barbie Doll.

by Dart Sailability 11 Oct, 2017

Dart Sailability Needs You!

As a member of Dart Sailability we would like your help in raising much needed funds through participating in this year's "Movember".

If you are not familiar with Movember, it is a world-wide initiative which involves men growing moustaches just for the month of November and getting sponsored by family, friends, neighbours, etc. to raise funds for charity with a goal of promoting wellbeing. Keith Cockburn already has a great head start!  I did it previously and raised £100 for Dart Sailability.

Previous years have had Movember themes such as prostate cancer, mental health and suicide prevention. This year, let's do it for our great organisation Dart Sailability for providing boating, sailing and wellbeing for anybody with any kind of disability.

For our male members, please take part and get those whiskers growing. Please try to raise at least £20, but any amount is welcome.

For our female members, please "adopt a man" and again try to raise at least £20 through encouraging their efforts and getting sponsorship.

If all members raise £20 it will give us £2,000 towards our boats, facilities, engines, maintenance, etc. In addition we could qualify for 25% extra as Gift Aid.  As a reminder we do not receive any funding from government sources and are completely reliant on donations and funds we raise ourselves.

Attached is a sponsorship form that you can use if you wish to. I will send a further email during November with details of what to do with the funds raised.

For anybody who would like to, please take "before and after" photos and send them to Jo Heaton. Jo will make a collage of the photos received and put them on the Dart Sailability website for us all to enjoy.

Please contact me if you have any queries. Many thanks and good luck!

With best regards

Mike

 

Mike Pleass

Trustee & Fundraising Coordinator

email: fundraising@dartsailability.org


by Dart Sailability 04 Oct, 2017

http://www.totnesraftrace.co.uk

Sunday 1 October 2017 dawned pretty miserable, with a proper mizzle, and breezy. A small group of us set off by river for Totnes just after 10am. Our mission? To be part of the safety squad for the Dart Struggle Raft Race. Our patch was from the downhill side of Totnes Weir to the Rowing Club slipway.

Every year Dart Sailability offers to be part of the safety squad for this stretch of the race, and every year we try to field a mixture of ability and disability on our boats. It's not only part of being good citizens of the river Dart, it's part of continuing to prove that folk with disabilities deliver value to others, and it's partly a Public Relations exercise, to tell those who may need us that we exist and can help folk with all kinds of disabilities get afloat and have fun. It's not a fund raising exercise, that would dilute the Dart Struggle's own charitable efforts, it's just firmly a part of our own charitable objectives. We do receive a fuel reimbursement, though. It's cost neutral for us and offers us great training opportunities, too.

As Farries Flyer arrived at Vire Island she made her first rescue! A large banner saying “200 yards to go” had fallen from the bridge and was trying to wrap itself around a moored boat. The folk on Vire Island asked us to rescue it.

An hour and a half or so after our departure the Farries Flyer was tiptoeing its way through the shallows to anchor in the weir pool. It's the first time we've taken the largest vessel in the fleet up there for the event. Its role was to be a base and a control point for the two other boats, Support 3 and the aptly named Safety, our main safety boat. The first rafts had already completed the course. This is normal. Safety cover is mainly required by tired crews on big heavy rafts. Early crews are usually far more self sufficient, and safety cover for these is usually kayak based. Even so we have a plan to get a vessel there even earlier for 2018.

About two thirds of the way through the 51 or so rafts coming over the weir one arrived that resembled a submarine rather than a raft. Six seats under water and the paddlers, exhausted, wet, and cold, were half submerged when they remounted. A kayak safety team member came and told us that she was worried about two of the crew, but that they all wanted to finish. Tim and Roger on Farries Flyer called Andrew, Steve, Mike and Nicky on Safety and Support 3, and they escorted the raft to the finish, taking any crew who were too cold and tired to paddle aboard. Those rescued grateful enjoyed the crew's chocolate snacks and blankets.

The final raft of the 2017 Dart Struggle was a bit of a wreck, or we think it was. It was hard to tell! Three exhausted paddlers, though they said they had lost one earlier (no-one said where!!!), an upside down raft, and two tiny paddles. A chap in a Canadian canoe came up to us and told us it was the final raft. “I'm the sweeper,” he said, looking grimly happy. We named him “The Grim Sweeper” at once!

This was the time to weigh anchor and trickle down to Vire Island keeping that last raft safe for the final part of its trip. The three guys aboard forced themselves to finish the race. Go them!!! The Grim Sweeper picked one of them up in his canoe after the finish, and Safety transferred the two remaining crew to Farries Flyer in order to return to the raft to tow it to the Rowing Club.

Then our three crews took the next hour and a half or so to get back to base at Noss, put the boats away, and then declared it a job well done. The Dart Sailability logo was in front of new eyes, and quiet PR had been achieved, plus training our own folk. At the same time we'd helped other people to achieve their own objectives.

Would you like to be part of the safety squad next year? We might even enter a raft!! Who's up for either of those things

by Dart Sailability 03 Oct, 2017
A good mornings work to get everything moved from the green shed to our new container storage facility. Well done everyone.  
by Dart Sailability 19 Sep, 2017
Eighteen of us cruised to the Mewstone for some seal watching.  We then visited the Blackpool Beach bay before anchoring in Shingle Cove for our picnic.  The Sonars (a girls crew and a boys crew) then raced back to Dartmouth with the girls clear winners.  Well done to Anna, Emily, Pam and Denise.
by Dart Sailability 14 Sep, 2017
Mayfield School took to the water in Farries Flyer today (14th Sept) for a trip to Stoke Gabriel.  Mayfield's visits this year, have been generously funded by Rotary.  Although severely disabled, it was obvious that the children all loved the experience.  The carers did too and each took their turn at the helm.
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